[93][50][94] Pine plantations are popular nesting sites across several parts of the range. Robins were the leading prey species in northwestern Oregon, at 19.6% of 281 prey items, Lopez Island, Washington, 23.4% of 107 prey items, in Victoria, British Columbia, at 34.6% of 2896 prey items and prominent but ranked second also in California (Berkeley and Albany) food studies, 24.5% of 1057 prey items. [465] It has been recommended that a buffer zone of at least 200 to 240 m (660 to 790 ft), with a median estimated space needed of about 525 m (1,722 ft), should be free from human disturbance or development to retain the protected nests of Cooper's hawks. (2018). [33][56][175][343][358] Exceptionally, though, pairs have used the same nests for up to 4 years, though mostly records show up to 2 to 3 years of use when a nest is reused. (2016). Many records show great horned owls will visit the nests of birds of prey and pick off the young nightly until the prey resource is exhausted (i.e. The Cooper’s Hawk concept includes four distinct components: an upscale casual dining restaurant, full-service bar, private dining room, and Napa-style tasting room and retail gift store…all under one roof. [179] Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) were the second most common prey species in a study from Wisconsin and also important in the diet in North Dakota (where they were the most significant contributor of biomass, constituting 23.4%). You’re most likely to see one prowling above a forest edge or field using just a few stiff wingbeats followed by a glide. [416][417][418] A high balance of the bacterial disease Mycoplasma gallisepticum, common to birds who frequent bird feeders, was found in Cooper's hawks (transmitted from their prey) studied in Illinois (the highest of any six raptor species studied) however effective antibodies were found and no external infection was noted. These are mostly wire strikes (with or without resulting electrocution), automobile collisions and window strikes or with other parts of manmade structure while distractingly hunting. [7][179][292] While little data has been collected on the overall effect great horned owls have on Cooper's hawk populations, it is known that for the larger, more formidable goshawk that as many as 40% of radiotagged juveniles within a study appeared to meet their demise via horned owls. Rosenfield, R. N., Bielefeldt, J. [343][334] In north Florida, 21% of nests were reused in a subsequent year, while in New York, it was around 10%. However, the sharp-shinned hawk nests in Missouri were at much higher elevations, i.e. A., & Brooks, D. L. (1998). [94] Forest edges, in particular, tend to be key as these are peak hunting grounds for these hawks. Adults have a rusty red tail. [25] Several of the other similar largish Accipiter species in the Americas appear to be closely related, possibly within a species complex, to the Cooper's hawk, namely the bicolored hawk, widespread through Central and South America, and the Chilean hawk (Accipiter chilensis). [51][326][327] In Arizona, birds of each sex were found to usually pair with like-age individuals. [447] These estimates were gained cross-referencing the number of hectares per active nest, which was in the range of 101 to 2,326 ha (250 to 5,750 acres) in the western states and 272 to 5,000 ha (670 to 12,360 acres) in the Midwestern and eastern states, as well as data from Christmas Bird Counts and migration counts. Ditchkoff, S. S., Saalfeld, S. T., & Gibson, C. J. [62][157][345][346][347] One unusual nest in North Dakota was in dense shrub rather than a tree and it even successfully produced fledglings. [178], Somewhat over 60% of the bird species known in the Cooper's hawks’ prey spectrum are passerines (including thrushes and starlings). There was an explosion of occupancy documented in New York by the second Breeding Bird Atlas with 146% increase statewide from 1980-85 to 2000-05. [420][421] A similar blood parasite infection rate was found in northern New York (and California) as well. Murphy, R. K., Gratson, M.W., & Rosenfield, R. N. (1988). [61] Breeding may begin as early as February in the southern part of range, but, for the most part, the breeding season is from April to July. [114] Cooper's hawks have a well-developed muscle mass that powers their flight, especially helping with acceleration during hunts and when carrying heavy prey. They mainly feed on small mammals such as mice, voles, squirrels, chipmunks and rabbits. Rosenberg, K. V., Kennedy, J. Despite a reputation as a “somewhat aggressive” or even as being a hawk with a “very aggressive defense” towards humans in nest defense, the actual rate of attacks even at peak times seems to be very low and the reputation is thought to be fairly unearned. [337] No correlation was found to body size or habitat in female survivorship but those in Wisconsin who changed nest sites annually may have had slightly higher survival rates than those who reused a same nest site. [183] One study determined that birds that nest in the canopy level tended to nest fairly close to this hawk but those with mid-level, shrub level and ground level nests nested farther away, indicating that non-canopy-nesting birds are generally taken during the breeding season. Often, state’s will put up several platforms designated for Osprey’s to aid in conservation and promoting good nesting sites. [5][332] From Florida to Baja California, egg-laying can began as early February, but, despite the lower latitude, known records show most are between mid-April and early May and can even run into June. In Tucson, it was found that the mean distance of the mated pairs was only 473.4 m (1,553 ft) during the non-breeding season and 36 interactions were recorded almost all in the core range, indicating an unusually close perennial typical pair bond here. [157][158] The Cooper's hawk does attack birds attracted to bird feeders with a fair amount of frequency. Warkentin, I. G., N. S. Sodhi, R. H. M. Espie, A. F. Poole, L. W. Oliphant, and P. C. James (2005). Trends Discussion: Cooper’s hawk populations are increasing in all parts of the range. [207] Even meadowlarks, such as the 93 g (3.3 oz) eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna) which was the third most often selected prey in Ithaca, New York, and bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) are taken despite their preference for grasslands well outside the typical habitats of Cooper's hawks. [90], In denser forest areas, these hawks tend to prefer easy access to edges, clearings, roads and waterways. [192][223] Flickers are common prey elsewhere as well, such as in Ithaca, New York. [33] Sometimes, Cooper's hawks will engage in tandem hunts with one dashing around after the prey while another waits on the other side of a tree trunk or wooded thicket. Hanebrink, E. L., Posey, A. F., & Sutton, K. B. (2004). Rodewald, P. G., Shumar, M. B., Boone, A. T., Slager, D. L., & McCormac, J. (2007). similar tree species used). Rosenfield, R. N. & Sobolik, L.E. [2] This species tends to be active earlier in the morning than sharp-shinned hawks and Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus) and is generally much more likely to be active in the morning than in the afternoon. [5] When soaring, these hawks do so on flattish or, more commonly, slightly raised wings, with fairly straight leading edges. With a range very similar to that of the Cooper’s Hawk, Red-shouldered Hawks can be found year-round only in all of New Jersey. Sullivan, A. R., Flaspohler, D. J., Froese, R. E., & Ford, D. (2016). Cox, S. A., Peoples, A. D., DeMaso, S. J., Lusk, J. J., & Guthery, F. S. (2004). [205] Cases of missing toes on Cooper's hawks are thought to have possibly come from failed predation of crows. (1990). The species may further make itself at home in some pure conifer forest, including the extreme southern part of the taiga but also in many parts of the west. Braun, C. E., Enderson, J. H., Henny, C. J., Meng, H., & Nye Jr, A. G. (1977). [463], Logging may decrease some populations but the overall effect it has on Cooper's hawks is generally considered unknown. Rosenfield, R. N., & Bielefeldt, J. (1979). Given reasonable views, adult goshawks are very different looking and hard to mistake for any Cooper's hawk. This article contains affiliate links. Hoffman, S. W., Smith, J. P., & Meehan, T. D. (2002). While red-tailed hawks nested fairly high in the Maryland data in isolated pines somewhat out of the interior forest, the Cooper's nests were at similar height in forest and slightly higher than those of red-shouldered hawks and much higher than those of broad-winged hawks. [154] Males in New York usually covered more than 0.8 km (0.50 mi), sometimes up to 3 km (1.9 mi), during hunting efforts when flying away from the nest area. (2013). ### Bird sounds provided by The Macaulay Library of Natural Sounds at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. 277. The young were photographed to sleep at night directly under her body until there is not enough room to do so. [162] During hunts, these hawks may suddenly alight when detecting an available mammal. McCrary, J. K., Arendt, W. J., Chavarría, L., López, L. J., Somarriba, P. A., Boudrault, P. O., Cruz, A.L., Muñoz, F.J. & Mackler, D. G. (2009). Duncan, W. J., & Bednekoff, P. A. [40] Weights were similar to the Goshutes in the Marin Headlands, California where 50 males (all first-years) averaged 288 g (10.2 oz) and 117 first-year females averaged 417 g (14.7 oz). [306], Even more so than diurnal raptors, a wide diversity of owls are known to fall prey to Cooper's hawks. 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